The Importance of in vivo Like Astroglial-Neuron Co-Cultures

The Power of Neuromics’-Aruna Biomedical’s hAstroPro™-NeuroNet™ Co-Cultures. We are pleased to be the first to market with our in vivo like co-cultures. Here are key points of what make these cultures unique:

  • Pure, Potent and Proven

  • Proof That These areTrue Co-Cultures

  •  Co-Cultures vs Neuron Only Cultures

What have we learned? The mix of Astroglia vs Neurons can have a dramatic impact on your data end points. This can lead to wrong conclusion being drawn from your tox and compound/small molecule neurodegenerative disease assays. We stand ready to serve you and your team. Questions? Don not hesitate to call 612-801-1007 or e-mail me pshuster@neuromics.com. Pete Shuster, CEO and Owner, Neuromics

hN2 Human Neurons & hNP1 Neural Progenitors in Action

I have been promoting Dr. Steve Stice and his team. They are the brains behind our  hN2TM Human Neuron and hNP1TM Human Neural Progenitor Discovery Kits. I would like to share 2 recent publication referencing use of these discovery kits. These validate the postings on capabilities. They are the best solutions available for researchers searching for Neuron or Neural Progenitor Based Assays for basic research, toxicology studies or drug discovery.

Xiugong Gao, Hsiuling Lin, Radharaman Ray, Prabhati Ray. Toxicogenomic Studies of Human Neural Cells Following Exposure to Organophosphorus Chemical Warfare Nerve Agent VX. Neurochemical Research. February 2013…Human hN2 neurons were obtained from Neuromics…

Abstract: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds represent an important group of chemical warfare nerve agents that remains a significant and constant military and civilian threat. OP compounds are considered acting primarily via cholinergic pathways by binding irreversibly to acetylcholinesterase, an important regulator of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Many studies over the past years have suggested that other mechanisms of OP toxicity exist, which need to be unraveled by a comprehensive and systematic approach such as genome-wide gene expression analysis. Here we performed a microarray study in which cultured human neural cells were exposed to 0.1 or 10 μM of VX for 1 h. Global gene expression changes were analyzed 6, 24, and 72 h post exposure. Functional annotation and pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes has revealed many genes, networks and canonical pathways that are related to nervous system development and function, or to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. In particular, the neuregulin pathway impacted by VX exposure has important implications in many nervous system diseases including schizophrenia. These results provide useful information valuable in developing suitable antidotes for more effective prevention and treatment of, as well as in developing biomarkers for, VX-induced chronic neurotoxicity.

Protocol: Human hN2 neural cellswere obtained from Neuromics (Edina, MN). The hN2 cells were fully differentiated

normal human neural cells derived as adherent cells from human embryonic stem cell (hESC) WA09 line [34] and thus are considered as ‘‘matured’’ neuronal cells. It should
be noted that the universal neural cell marker Tuj (beta tubulin III) indicates that [80 % of the hN2 cells are neural. The other cell types which constitute\20 % of the cell population are mostly astrocytes and microglia, which are common glial cells found in the brain and spinal cord. The inclusion of the small amount of glial cells in the cell population better mimics real life situation in the central nervous system. The hN2 cells were seeded in 12-well plates at *500,000 cells/well in the AB2 Basal Medium complemented with ANS Supplement (cholinesterase free) provided by Neuromics and cultured at 37OC under
humidified 5 % CO2 for 48 h (without changing media) before VX exposure.

Xiufang Guo, Severo Spradling, Maria Stancescu, Stephen Lambert, James J. Hickman. Derivation of sensory neurons and neural crest stem cells from human neural progenitor hNP1. Biomaterials, In Press, Corrected Proof,Mar 2013.doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.02.061 ...hNP1, were obtained from Neuromics (Edina, Minnesota)…

Abstract: Although sensory neurons constitute a critical component for the proper function of the nervous system, the in vitro differentiation of functional sensory neurons from human stem cells has not yet been reported. This study presents the differentiation of sensory neurons (SNs) from a human neural progenitor cell line, hNP1, and their functional maturation in a defined, in vitro culture system without murine cell feeder layers. The SNs were characterized by immunocytochemistry and their functional maturation was evaluated by electrophysiology. Neural crest (NC) precursors, as one of the cellular derivatives in the differentiation culture, were isolated, propagated, and tested for their ability to generate sensory neurons. The hSC-derived SNs, as well as the NC precursors provide valuable tools for developing in vitro functional systems that model sensory neuron-related neural circuits and for designing therapeutic models for related diseases.

Images: Generation of Schwann cells from the differentiated culture. Immunostaining of a day 38 culture with the Schwann cell marker S100 demonstrating a significant number of Schwann cells in the culture. Schwann cells were located either within the neuronal clusters (A) or along the axonal bundles (B). The neuronal clusters and axonal bundles were marked by Peripherin immunostaining. doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.02.061

I will continue to post more proof regarding the capabilties and value of our human neurons & neural progenitors as pubs/data/images becomes available

Dr. Ivan Rich and HemoGenix

Stem Cells Testing Tools that enlighten Drug Discovery and Cell Therapy Researchers
I am pleased to profile Dr. Ivan Rich. He is the founder, chairman and CEO of HemoGenix and an internationally recognized leader in hematology.  I am timing this profile to coincide with Neuromics launch of HemoGenix’s first to market fully standardized, proven and cost effective  ATP-based, in vitro bioluminescence and high-throughput screening (HTS) cell based assay systems.

These assays represent best in class solutions for detecting and measuring cell viability, functionality, growth, proliferation and cytotoxicity of stem and progenitor cells for stem cell and basic research, cellular therapy, in vitro toxicity testing and veterinary applications.

Hemogenix_Pic

 ivan-rich

2000-Present- Hemogenix-CEO
and Chairman

1996-2000-Palmetto Richland Memorial Hospital

 1995-Second Thesis in Experimental Hematology, University of Ulm

1981-1983-Post Doc University of Chicago

1973-1978-Ph.D. University of Ulm, Biology

 

Ivan’s journey leading to founding of HemoGenix provided him a unique blend of scientific, entrepreneurial and operational expertise.  These traits are the drivers that enable him to invent, successfully commercialize and continuously improve cell based assay systems. These systems meet a wide range of demanding requirements. These include, for example, meeting the requirement by Standards Organizations and Regulatory Agencies for “appropriate” and “validated” assays that can be used by cord blood banks and stem cell transplantation centers to determine whether a stem cell product has the necessary potency characteristics and can be released for transplantation into a patient…high standards indeed!

The Back Story-Hematology and Hemopoietic Stem Cells

Ivan received his PhD from the University of Ulm, in Germany in 1973 in Human Biology. He then completed a second thesis in 1995 in experimental hematology.  Our story starts here.  As a background we need to understand:  the hemopoietic stem cell compartment consists of cells which are responsible for maintaining the steady-state production of some two million red blood cells and two hundred thousand white blood cells every second of a person’s life!

Beginning in 1973, he worked extensively with “classic” colony-forming cell (CFC) assay.  At the same time, He also gained experience in culturing erythropoietic progenitor cells (BFU-E and CFU-E) under low oxygen tension. His group was the first to demonstrate that macrophages grown in vitro could respond to low oxygen tension by regulating erythropoietin production at a local level. His group also demonstrated the role of HOXB6 in erythropoietic development as well as the role of the Na/H exchanger in hematopoiesis. “Necessity being the mother of invention”, Ivan began developing these assays into miniaturized format.  Assays necessary for fully understanding the potential and associated risks of using of these cells for human therapies.

This opened the door for him to do a post doc with the late Dr. Eugene Goldwasser at the University of Chicago. Dr. Goldwasser was renowned for discovering the first partial amino acid sequence of erythropoietin (EPO). This discovery eventually led to the production of human recombinant EPO by Amgen and the development of first EPO related therapeutic (Epogen). It is used to treat anemia from kidney disease and certain cancers.

We now move to Palmetto Richland Memorial Hospital in South Carolina where Ivan served as Director of Basic Research for Transplantation Medicine. From this research,  we learn that the most primitive stem cells have the greatest potential for proliferation and long-term reconstitution of the hemopoietic system, while the most mature stem cells have only short-term reconstitution potential. These primitive cells then become the most excellent candidates for future therapies. BUT how do we know the population of cells derived from cord blood or bone marrow contain the required population of potent and safe (phenotypically stable) primitive stem cells for effective therapies? We can ask the same questions for other stem cell populations that are candidates for therapies. These include mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells and others.

Introducing Quantitative, Accurate and Proven High Throughput (HTS) Stem Cell Assays

Ivan and HemoGenix began answering these questions in 2002 with help from National Cancer Insitute (NCI) SBIR grants. This led to the successful launch of the HALO® family of kits. These kits are based on Bioluminomics™ which is the science of using the cell’s energy source in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to provide us with a wealth of information. The production of ATP is an indicator of the cell’s cellular and mitochondrial integrity, which, in turn, is an indicator of its viability and cellular functionality. ATP also changes in proportion to cell number, proliferation status and potential, its cytotoxicity and even its apoptotic status.

HemoGenix continues to develop and evolve kits key to developing effective and safe stem cell related drugs and cell based therapies.

Practical Applications

Here are examples of the kits in action.

  • HemoGenix and Vitro Diagnostic-Via this partnership, LUMENESC kits for mesenchymal stem cells include high performance growth media for research, quality control or potency or cytotoxicity to the mesenchymal stem cell system
  • LumiSTEM™ for testing  hNP1™ Human Neural Progenitors Expansion Kit-enables  fast, accurate and multiplex detection system for hastening advances in drug safety and discovery as well as environmental toxicology. . LumiSTEM™[now LumiCYTE-HT]  kits are used for in vitro detection of liver toxicity, with an overall reduction in drug development cost for drug candidates
  • High Throughput (HTS) Screening of Multiple Compounds using HALO®-(to learn more see: TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES 87(2), 427–441 (2005) doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfi25). Eleven reference compounds from the Registry of Cytotoxicity (RC) and eight other compounds, including anticancer drugs, were studied over an 8- to 9-log dose range for their effects on seven cell populations from both human and mouse bone marrow simultaneously. The cell populations studied included a primitive (HPP-SP) and mature (CFC-GEMM) stem cell, three hematopoietic (BFU-E, GM-CFC, Mk-CFC) and two lymphopoietic (T-CFC, B-CFC) populations. The results reveal a five-point prediction paradigm for lympho-hematotoxicity.
HSC Toxicity Data

HSC Toxicity Data

Futures

The dawn is breaking for stem cells therapies. These cells are the reparative engines for damaged cells in our bodies. These therapies have the potential to alleviate the world’s most insidious, chronic and costly diseases. Tools that enable us to understand the true properties and potency of these cells lower the cost of discovering drugs and cell based therapies.

I look for more tools to spring from the vision of Dr. Ivan Rich that will play an ever increasing and important role in the world of basic stem cell research, stem cell based therapies and regenerative medicine. I plan to keep you updated on the evolution and capabilities of these inventions.

Harnessing the Power of Neural Stem Cells

I wanted to share an important presentation by Dr. Steve Stice. He is a featured researcher in “News Behind the Neuroscience News”.

“Does amplification of neural progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem cells solve problems of cell production and FDA safety standards?”
Steven L. Stice, PhD
Professor, GRA Eminent Scholar
Director of the Regenerative Bioscience Center at University of Georgia
CSO, Aruna Biomedical Inc.

Lectin Binding Profiles among Human Embryonic Stem Cells

I have featured  numerous posting of innovations by Dr. Steve Stice and our friends at Aruna Biomedical. Here I would like to share a publication by Steve and his team featuring a new slant on isolating eSC Derived hNP Neural Progenitors. This study also includes methods for sorting hESCs, hNP cells and hMP cells.

Mahesh C. Dodla, Amber Young, Alison Venable, Kowser Hasneen1, Raj R. Rao, David W. Machacek, Steven L. Stice. Differing Lectin Binding Profiles among Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Derivatives Aid in the Isolation of Neural Progenitor Cells. PLoS ONE 6(8): e23266. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023266.

Abstract: Identification of cell lineage specific glycans can help in understanding their role in maintenance, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, these glycans can serve as markers for isolation of homogenous populations of cells. Using a panel of eight biotinylated lectins, the glycan expression of hESCs, hESCs-derived human neural progenitors (hNP) cells, and hESCs-derived mesenchymal progenitor (hMP) cells was investigated. Our goal was to identify glycans that are unique for hNP cells and use the corresponding lectins for cell isolation. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were used to determine expression and localization of glycans, respectively, in each cell type. These results show that the glycan expression changes upon differentiation of hESCs and is different for neural and mesenchymal lineage. For example, binding of PHA-L lectin is low in hESCs (14±4.4%) but significantly higher in differentiated hNP cells (99±0.4%) and hMP cells (90±3%). Three lectins: VVA, DBA and LTL have low binding in hESCs and hMP cells, but significantly higher binding in hNP cells. Finally, VVA lectin binding was used to isolate hNP cells from a mixed population of hESCs, hNP cells and hMP cells. This is the first report that compares glycan expression across these human stem cell lineages and identifies significant differences. Also, this is the first study that uses VVA lectin for isolation for human neural progenitor cells.

hNP1_STEM_CELL_MARKERS_IF_IHC

Figure 1. Defining the stem cell phenotype using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry.Phase contrast image of hESCs (A), hNPs (B), and hMPs (C). hESCs express pluripotency markers: Oct 4 (D,GG, JJ), SSEA-4 (G), and Sox 2 (J,GG); lack expression of Nestin (M, JJ), CD 166 (P,DD), CD73 (DD), and CD105 (AA). hNPs have low expression of pluripotency markers: Oct 4 (E,KK), SSEA-4 (H); and mesenchymal markers CD 166 (Q,EE), CD73 (EE), and CD105 (BB). hNPs express neural markers: Sox 2 (J,HH) and Nestin (N,HH,KK). hMPs lack expression of pluripotency markers: Oct 4 (F,LL), SSEA-4 (I), and Sox 2 (L,II); however, hMPs express Nestin (O,II,LL), CD 166 (R,FF), CD73 (FF), CD90 (CC) and CD105 (CC). All the cells have been stained with the nuclear marker DAPI (blue) in panels D- P. Scale bar: 10 µm. In the dot plots, red dots indicate isotype control or secondary antibody only; black dots indicate the antigen staining. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023266.g001

 By comparing hESCs, hNP cells and hMP cells, we have identified glycan structures that are unique to hNP cells: GalNac end groups (VVA), α-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (DBA), and fucose moieties α-linked to GlcNAc (LTL). Future studies help in identifying the roles of these glycans in cell maintenance, proliferation and differentiation fate.

I will keep you posted on these future Studies.

25 Best Blogs for Following Stem Cell Research

Providing research proven and reasonably priced Stem Cell Research Reagents is core to our business growth.  Part of my business strategy includes keeping the Stem Cell research community up to date on latest news, methods and publications. This helps oil the engines of basic research and drug discovery.

hN2 Cell-Differentiation

Images Courtesy of Paula M. Keeney, Laboratory and Research Manager, VCU Parkinson's Disease Center of Excellence.

This listing comes to me from my friend Roxanne McAnn at Nursingdegree.net.

Stem cell research has been a contentious issue in both the scientific and political spheres for quite some years. Despite the ongoing battle between those who support and those who oppose the research and treatments, new discoveries and advances in the field are being made all the time. Whether you’re pursuing a career in medicine or science, if you’d like to keep up with these advances, then blogs on the issue are one of the best tools out there. Here, you’ll find a collection of blogs that provide all the information you’ll need to stay on top of the latest in stem cell discoveries.

News-These blogs will let you stay on the cutting edge of new developments in the stem cell research community.

  1. The Stem Cell Blog: Through this blog, you’ll be able to get updates on the latest and greatest in stem cell research.
  2. Stem Cell News Blog: This blog collects a wide range of articles related to stem cell treatments, research and policy.
  3. Ben’s Stem Cell News: Ben Kaplan is a stem cell activist, blogger and a biotech professional who shares his thoughts and the latest information on stem cells here.
  4. Stem Cell Directory: No matter what kind of stem cell information you’re looking for, you’ll find it here through articles, news and videos.
  5. All Things Stem Cell: From treating baldness to cancer, learn about the myriad of ways stem cells may be able to help patients on this blog.
  6. Cell News: This blog will make it simple to be in-the-know when it comes to everything related to stem cells.
  7. The Stem Cell Trekker: Use this blog to learn more about stem cell innovations around the globe.
  8. StemSave: You might not think dental care when you think of stem cells, but this blog will show you that stem cells may be able to be taken from the teeth, giving you a whole new appreciation for those chompers.
  9. Joescamp’s Stem Cell Blog: This blog offers up news, information and insights into adult stem cell research.

Businesses and Organizations-Check out these blogs to see what research corporations and organizations
invested in stem cells are doing.

  1. International Stem Cell Corporation: Visit this blog to learn more about stem cell research that’s being done overseas, as many countries don’t have the same restrictions on research as the U.S.
  2. ViaCord Blog: This company, invested in cord blood baking and research, shares advances in the field of stem cells and cord blood treatments through this blog.
  3. Stem Cell Network Blog: Based out of Canada, this organization’s blog will help readers stay on top of new studies being done in the field, as well as some political issues that will affect researchers in Canada and around the world.
  4. Stem Cell Aware: Here you’ll find articles and information that can help you learn more about individuals who are receiving treatment with adult stem cells around the world.
  5. Umbilical Cord Blood Blog: Learn more about donating umbilical blood and the stem cell research being done with it through this organization’s blog.

Commentary Here, you’ll get not only news, but commentary on stem cell issues as well.

  1. David Granovsky’s Stem Cell Blog: Ranked as one of the top health bloggers by Wellsphere, David Granovsky’s blog on stem cells is sure to provide you more  information on the subject than you’ll have time to read.
  2. California Stem Cell Report: See how stem cell politics are affecting research and development in California through this blog written by journalist David Jensen.
  3. Advance Stem Cell Research: Follow the latest news and commentary on stem cells with this blog.

Research-These blogs, many from labs and experts in the field, focus on providing news and information on the best research being done with stem cells in the world.

  1. Knoepfler Lab Stem Cell Blog: The UC Davis School of Medicine maintains this blog, providing readers with information on everything stem cell as well as other science-related issues.
  2. CIRM Research Results: The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine shares their latest discoveries and political battles here.
  3. Robert Lanza, MD: Dr. Robert Lanza is a scientist and professor working on issues related to cell technology and engineering; his blog will provide readers with some insights into the field and his research.
  4. Stem Cell Gateway: Whether you live in the U.S. or abroad, this blog is the place to visit for information geared towards the stem cell research community.
  5. Tissue and Cellular Innovation Center Blog: Focused on tissue engineering and stem cell biology, this center is at the forefront of much of the research they share via this blog.
  6. Stem Cell Breaking Research: Need to know the absolute latest on stem cell research? This blog may be one of your best bets, with updates posted every day.
  7. Stem Cell Digest.net: On this blog, you’ll find information about stem cell research, progress, new applications and companies who are doing the work.
  8. Stem Cell Methods: Researchers, scientists and medical professionals can learn more about the protocols and methods being used in stem cell research and treatment through this blog.

Author’s not (6/1/2011). This excellent site was brought to my attention by Dr. Anthony G. Payne- www.stemcelltherapies.org: This site is run by Steenblock Research Institute (San Clemente, California) which is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization devoted to stem cell related education and research (SRI has a massive library facility and  stem cell R & D laboratory).

Ion Channels and Neuromics’ STEMEZ Cells

In my conversation with neuro-drug discover researchers, I am frequently being asked about the potential of using our STEMEZ(TM) hNP1 Human Neural Progenitors Expansion Kits for studying ion channels. How effective are these cells as a source for studying neurodegenerative diseases and for drug screening assays?  There is good news from Dr. Steve Stice and my friends from ArunA and UGA.

When differentiated, these  neural progenitors express subunits of glutamatergic,  GABAergic, nicotinic, purinergic and transient receptor potential receptors. In addition, sodium  and calcium channel subunits were also expressed. Functionally, virtually all the NP cells exhibited delayed rectifier potassium channel currents and some differentiated cells exhibited  tetrodotoxin sensitive, voltage-dependent sodium channel current under whole-cell voltage clamp and action potentials could be elicited by current injection under whole-cell current clamp.  These results indicate that removing basic fibroblast growth factor from the neural progenitor cell cultures leads to a post-mitotic state, and also results in the capability to produce excitable cells that can generate action potentials. This is the first data demonstrating capabilitiesof these cells for ionotrophic receptor assays and ultimately for electrically active human neural cell assays for drug discovery.
hNP1_Gene_Expression

Images: Glutamate receptor expression in hNP cells and differentiated hNP cells The expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors might also be an indicator of neuronal maturation. These receptors are composed of three distinct families: NMDA, kainate and AMPA receptors. The hNP cells and differentiated hNP cells cultured in the absence of bFGF for 2 weeks were analyzed for mRNA expression of subunits of each glutamate receptor subtype relative to hESCs. Significant increases (p<0.05) in Grin2b were seen in hNP cells (20 fold) and differentiated hNP cells (25 fold) relative to hESCs (Figure 3A). Additionally, Grin1 and Grin2d were significantly increased (p<0.05) only in differentiated hNP cells relative to hESCs, but not in undifferentiated hNP cells (Figure 3A). Of the kainate receptors, Grik4 and Grik5 were significantly (p<0.05) increased only in undifferentiated hNP cells relative to hESCs (Figure 3B); whereas, Grik2 was significantly (p<0.05) increased only in hNP cells where bFGF had been removed (Figure 3B). AMPA receptor subunits were also examined. Gria1 and Gria4 were up regulated in hNP cells relative to hESCs (Figure 3C). Two week differentiated hNP cells showed significant (p<0.05) up regulation of Gria2 and Gira4 relative to hESCs (Figure 3C). To determine if functional glutamate channels exist in differentiated hNP cells, calcium influx in response to AMPA, kainic acid or NMDA application was measured on hNP cells, 14 days after the removal of bFGF. Figure 3G indicates that NMDA could not depolarize differentiated or undifferentiated hNP cells enough to cause significant calcium influx above background. In contrast, AMPA and kainic acid can cause calcium influx which can be potentiated by AMPA receptor specific modulator, cyclothiazide (50 μM, Figure 3G).Calcium influx was detected in the presence of cyclothiazide in calcium activity as measured (Figure 3H).

hNP1_Electrophysiology

Images: Sodium channel activity in differentiated hNP cells was measured using whole cell voltage clamp. 81 total hNP cells cultured in the absence of bFGF from 4 to 27 days were analyzed. Of these, 34 exhibited no fast inward currents in response to a step depolarization indicating the 348 absence of functional voltage gated sodium channels (Figure 4G). The remaining cells yielded between 0.04 – 1.5 nA of inward current in response to the step depolarization (Figures 4B and 4G). These currents inactivated rapidly in all cases (Figures 4B and 4C) and could be abolished with the addition of 1 μM TTX (n = 3 cells; Figure 4C). Voltage-dependent steady state inactivation (n = 11 cells; Figure 4D) and recovery from fast inactivation (n = 5 cells; Figure 4E) were also observed on several positive cells. A subset of these cells was subjected to current clamp and action potentials were elicited by current injection (n = 8 cells, Figure 4F). In support of this, increasing concentrations of a sodium channel activator veratridine in a FLIPR assay on differentiated hNP cells show an increasing calcium response (Figure 4H). This probably resulted from voltage-gated sodium channel depolarization of cells that subsequently allowed calcium influx through calcium channels. These data indicate that differentiation of hNP cells by removal of bFGF can lead to a neuronal cell that can generate action potentials and depolarize the cell. The 58% hit rate for voltage-gated sodium channel function (Figure 4G), does not reflect the true proportion of sodium channel positive cells in our differentiated hNP cells, but rather our ability to morphologically distinguish these cells from negative cells by eye. An example of the morphology of a sodium channel positive cell is shown in Figure 4A. The positive cells were phase bright with a few long processes.

STEMEZ hNeural Progenitors and Cell Migration

I first featured Dr. Steve Stice in August 2008. I have since done follow up posts based on the excellent studies they have been conducting using our  STEMEZ (TM) Human Neural Progenitor & Neuron Discovery Kits.

I would like to highlight a poster based on research Steve and his Team conducted with Platypus Technologies.

Allan C. Powe, Jr., Kathryn L. Hodges, Jamie M. Chilton, Scott Gehler, Renee L. Herber, Keren I. Hulkower, Steven L. Stice. Identification of stimulators and inhibitors of cell migration in human embryonic stem cell derived neural progenitors using a novel, high throughput amenable assay platform.

Investigates the migratory behavior of an adherent monolayer neural progenitor cell line derived from human embryonic stem cells (hNP1 ™; ArunA Biomedical)using a novel 96‐well based cell migration assay platform (Oris™ Cell Migration Assay; Platypus Technologies) amenable for high throughput screening. The assay platform uses stoppers to create central exclusion zones within the wells; cells are plated outside the zone and migrate inward once the stopper is removed.

Data suggest this is a tool for understanding proper nervous system development, development of therapies for cell migration defects, and identifying novel environmental neurotoxicants.

Conclusions:
—The hNP1™ Oris™ Cell Migration Assay can quantitatively detect both stimulators and inhibitors of cell migration.
—Method development to date indicates that the assay has the potential for adaptation as a homogenous HTS‐suitable cell‐based assay.
—Preliminary results suggest that bFGF alone has a potent chemokinetic effect while LIF and GDNF act synergistically to drive migratory behavior during dopaminergic differentiation.