Lectin Binding Profiles among Human Embryonic Stem Cells

I have featured  numerous posting of innovations by Dr. Steve Stice and our friends at Aruna Biomedical. Here I would like to share a publication by Steve and his team featuring a new slant on isolating eSC Derived hNP Neural Progenitors. This study also includes methods for sorting hESCs, hNP cells and hMP cells.

Mahesh C. Dodla, Amber Young, Alison Venable, Kowser Hasneen1, Raj R. Rao, David W. Machacek, Steven L. Stice. Differing Lectin Binding Profiles among Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Derivatives Aid in the Isolation of Neural Progenitor Cells. PLoS ONE 6(8): e23266. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023266.

Abstract: Identification of cell lineage specific glycans can help in understanding their role in maintenance, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, these glycans can serve as markers for isolation of homogenous populations of cells. Using a panel of eight biotinylated lectins, the glycan expression of hESCs, hESCs-derived human neural progenitors (hNP) cells, and hESCs-derived mesenchymal progenitor (hMP) cells was investigated. Our goal was to identify glycans that are unique for hNP cells and use the corresponding lectins for cell isolation. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were used to determine expression and localization of glycans, respectively, in each cell type. These results show that the glycan expression changes upon differentiation of hESCs and is different for neural and mesenchymal lineage. For example, binding of PHA-L lectin is low in hESCs (14±4.4%) but significantly higher in differentiated hNP cells (99±0.4%) and hMP cells (90±3%). Three lectins: VVA, DBA and LTL have low binding in hESCs and hMP cells, but significantly higher binding in hNP cells. Finally, VVA lectin binding was used to isolate hNP cells from a mixed population of hESCs, hNP cells and hMP cells. This is the first report that compares glycan expression across these human stem cell lineages and identifies significant differences. Also, this is the first study that uses VVA lectin for isolation for human neural progenitor cells.

hNP1_STEM_CELL_MARKERS_IF_IHC

Figure 1. Defining the stem cell phenotype using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry.Phase contrast image of hESCs (A), hNPs (B), and hMPs (C). hESCs express pluripotency markers: Oct 4 (D,GG, JJ), SSEA-4 (G), and Sox 2 (J,GG); lack expression of Nestin (M, JJ), CD 166 (P,DD), CD73 (DD), and CD105 (AA). hNPs have low expression of pluripotency markers: Oct 4 (E,KK), SSEA-4 (H); and mesenchymal markers CD 166 (Q,EE), CD73 (EE), and CD105 (BB). hNPs express neural markers: Sox 2 (J,HH) and Nestin (N,HH,KK). hMPs lack expression of pluripotency markers: Oct 4 (F,LL), SSEA-4 (I), and Sox 2 (L,II); however, hMPs express Nestin (O,II,LL), CD 166 (R,FF), CD73 (FF), CD90 (CC) and CD105 (CC). All the cells have been stained with the nuclear marker DAPI (blue) in panels D- P. Scale bar: 10 µm. In the dot plots, red dots indicate isotype control or secondary antibody only; black dots indicate the antigen staining. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023266.g001

 By comparing hESCs, hNP cells and hMP cells, we have identified glycan structures that are unique to hNP cells: GalNac end groups (VVA), α-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (DBA), and fucose moieties α-linked to GlcNAc (LTL). Future studies help in identifying the roles of these glycans in cell maintenance, proliferation and differentiation fate.

I will keep you posted on these future Studies.

Differential healing properties of human ACL and MCL Stem Cells

Autologous Stem Cell therapies for human injury and disease are gaining momentum. Understanding the properties of Stem Cell Colonies that have potential for these therapies is key to optimizing treatments. This study provides knowledge on the properties and their impact on future therapies for anterior cruciate ligament (hACL) and medial collateral ligament (hMCL) of the knee joint.

Jianying Zhang, Tiffany Pan, Hee-Jeong Im, Freddie H Fu and James HC Wang. Differential properties of human ACL and MCL stem cells may be responsible for their differential healing capacity. Differential properties of human ACL and MCL stem cells may be responsible for their differential healing capacity. BMC Medicine 2011, 9:68doi:10.1186/1741-7015-9-68.

Background: The human anterior cruciate ligament (hACL) and medial collateral ligament (hMCL) of the knee joint are frequently injured, especially in athletic settings. It has been known that, while injuries to the MCL typically heal with conservative treatment, ACL injuries usually do not heal. As adult stem cells repair injured tissues through proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesized that the hACL and hMCL contain stem cells exhibiting unique properties that could be responsible for the differential healing capacity of the two ligaments.

Methods: To test the above hypothesis, we derived ligament stem cells from normal hACL and hMCL samples from the same adult donors using tissue culture techniques and characterized their properties using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and flow cytometry.

Self-renewal of hACL-SCs and hMCL-SCsImages:The expression of stem cell markers in hACL-SCs and hMCL-SCs. At passage 5, hACL-SCs had already become highly elongated in confluent culture, a typical fibroblast phenotype (A). In contrast, even at passage 13, confluent hMCL-SCs remained cobblestone-like (B). Moreover, hACL-SCs no longer expressed nucleostemin (C) or SSEA-4 (E) at passages > 5, whereas hMCL-SCs expressed both stem cell markers at passage 13 (D, F). Note, however, that hMCL-SCs at this high passage exhibited a lesser degree of nucleostemin expression compared to the cells at passage 1 (see Figure 3). The results shown here were obtained from a male donor of 27 years oldTo test the above hypothesis, we derived ligament stem cells from normal hACL and hMCL samples from the same adult donors using tissue culture techniques and characterized their properties using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and flow cytometry.

 

Results: We found that both hACL stem cells (hACL-SCs) and hMCL stem cells (hMCL-SCs) formed colonies in culture and expressed stem cell markers nucleostemin and stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4). Moreover, both hACL-SCs and hMCL-SCs expressed CD surface markers for mesenchymal stem cells, including CD44 and CD90, but not those markers for vascular cells, CD31, CD34, CD45, and CD146. However, hACL-SCs differed from hMCL-SCs in that the size and number of hACL-SC colonies in culture were much smaller and grew more slowly than hMCL-SC colonies. Moreover, fewer hACL-SCs in cell colonies expressed stem cell markers STRO-1 and octamer-binding transcription factor-4 (Oct-4) than hMCL-SCs. Finally, hACL-SCs had less multi-differentiation potential than hMCL-SCs, evidenced by differing extents of adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis in the respective induction media.

Conclusions: This study shows for the first time that hACL-SCs are intrinsically different from hMCL-SCs. We suggest that the differences in their properties contribute to the known disparity in healing capabilities between the two ligaments.

I will be posting more on autologous stem cell therapies research.

More on STEMEZ hN2 Primary Human Neurons

My company’s STEMEZTM hN2 Primary Human Neuron Discovery Kits have been a frequent topic on “News Behind the Neuroscience News”. My friends at Aruna Biomedical continue to broaden the capabilities of these Kits based on customer feedback.

I am seeing increasing demand for these cells as these capabilities are published. Here’s the latest:

A. Young, D.W. Machacek, S.K. Dhara, P.R. MacLeish, M. Benveniste, M.C. Dodla, C.D. Sturkie and S.L. Stice. Ion channels and ionotrophic receptors in a human embryonic stem cell derived neural progenitors. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.04.039. Markers used:…mouse nonoclonal anti nestin (neuromics), mouse monoclonal anti tuj-1 (neuromics)…

Abstract: Human neural progenitor cells differentiated from human embryonic stem cells offer a potential cell source for studying neurodegenerative diseases and for drug screening assays. Previously, we demonstrated that human neural progenitors could be maintained in a proliferative state with the addition of leukemia inhibitory factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. Here we demonstrate that 96 h after removal of basic fibroblast growth factor the neural progenitor cell culture was significantly altered and cell replication halted. Fourteen days after the removal of basic fibroblast growth factor, most cells expressed microtubule-associated protein 2 and TUJ1, markers characterizing a post-mitotic neuronal phenotype as well as neural developmental markers Cdh2 and Gbx2. Real-time PCR was performed to determine the ionotrophic receptor subunit expression profile. Differentiated neural progenitors express subunits of glutamatergic, GABAergic, nicotinic, purinergic and transient receptor potential receptors. In addition, sodium and calcium channel subunits were also expressed. Functionally, virtually all the hNP cells tested under whole-cell voltage clamp exhibited delayed rectifier potassium channel currents and some differentiated cells exhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive, voltage-dependent sodium channel current. Action potentials could also be elicited by current injection under whole-cell current clamp in a minority of cells. These results indicate that removing basic fibroblast growth factor from the neural progenitor cell cultures leads to a post-mitotic state, and has the capability to produce excitable cells that can generate action potentials, a landmark characteristic of a neuronal phenotype. This is the first report of an efficient and simple means of generating human neuronal cells for ionotrophic receptor assays and ultimately for electrically active human neural cell assays for drug discovery.

STEMEZ hN2 Cells-Electrophysiology Data

STEMEZ hN2 Cells-Electrophysiology Data

 

 

 

 

 

I will continue to post updates here.

25 Best Blogs for Following Stem Cell Research

Providing research proven and reasonably priced Stem Cell Research Reagents is core to our business growth.  Part of my business strategy includes keeping the Stem Cell research community up to date on latest news, methods and publications. This helps oil the engines of basic research and drug discovery.

hN2 Cell-Differentiation

Images Courtesy of Paula M. Keeney, Laboratory and Research Manager, VCU Parkinson's Disease Center of Excellence.

This listing comes to me from my friend Roxanne McAnn at Nursingdegree.net.

Stem cell research has been a contentious issue in both the scientific and political spheres for quite some years. Despite the ongoing battle between those who support and those who oppose the research and treatments, new discoveries and advances in the field are being made all the time. Whether you’re pursuing a career in medicine or science, if you’d like to keep up with these advances, then blogs on the issue are one of the best tools out there. Here, you’ll find a collection of blogs that provide all the information you’ll need to stay on top of the latest in stem cell discoveries.

News-These blogs will let you stay on the cutting edge of new developments in the stem cell research community.

  1. The Stem Cell Blog: Through this blog, you’ll be able to get updates on the latest and greatest in stem cell research.
  2. Stem Cell News Blog: This blog collects a wide range of articles related to stem cell treatments, research and policy.
  3. Ben’s Stem Cell News: Ben Kaplan is a stem cell activist, blogger and a biotech professional who shares his thoughts and the latest information on stem cells here.
  4. Stem Cell Directory: No matter what kind of stem cell information you’re looking for, you’ll find it here through articles, news and videos.
  5. All Things Stem Cell: From treating baldness to cancer, learn about the myriad of ways stem cells may be able to help patients on this blog.
  6. Cell News: This blog will make it simple to be in-the-know when it comes to everything related to stem cells.
  7. The Stem Cell Trekker: Use this blog to learn more about stem cell innovations around the globe.
  8. StemSave: You might not think dental care when you think of stem cells, but this blog will show you that stem cells may be able to be taken from the teeth, giving you a whole new appreciation for those chompers.
  9. Joescamp’s Stem Cell Blog: This blog offers up news, information and insights into adult stem cell research.

Businesses and Organizations-Check out these blogs to see what research corporations and organizations
invested in stem cells are doing.

  1. International Stem Cell Corporation: Visit this blog to learn more about stem cell research that’s being done overseas, as many countries don’t have the same restrictions on research as the U.S.
  2. ViaCord Blog: This company, invested in cord blood baking and research, shares advances in the field of stem cells and cord blood treatments through this blog.
  3. Stem Cell Network Blog: Based out of Canada, this organization’s blog will help readers stay on top of new studies being done in the field, as well as some political issues that will affect researchers in Canada and around the world.
  4. Stem Cell Aware: Here you’ll find articles and information that can help you learn more about individuals who are receiving treatment with adult stem cells around the world.
  5. Umbilical Cord Blood Blog: Learn more about donating umbilical blood and the stem cell research being done with it through this organization’s blog.

Commentary Here, you’ll get not only news, but commentary on stem cell issues as well.

  1. David Granovsky’s Stem Cell Blog: Ranked as one of the top health bloggers by Wellsphere, David Granovsky’s blog on stem cells is sure to provide you more  information on the subject than you’ll have time to read.
  2. California Stem Cell Report: See how stem cell politics are affecting research and development in California through this blog written by journalist David Jensen.
  3. Advance Stem Cell Research: Follow the latest news and commentary on stem cells with this blog.

Research-These blogs, many from labs and experts in the field, focus on providing news and information on the best research being done with stem cells in the world.

  1. Knoepfler Lab Stem Cell Blog: The UC Davis School of Medicine maintains this blog, providing readers with information on everything stem cell as well as other science-related issues.
  2. CIRM Research Results: The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine shares their latest discoveries and political battles here.
  3. Robert Lanza, MD: Dr. Robert Lanza is a scientist and professor working on issues related to cell technology and engineering; his blog will provide readers with some insights into the field and his research.
  4. Stem Cell Gateway: Whether you live in the U.S. or abroad, this blog is the place to visit for information geared towards the stem cell research community.
  5. Tissue and Cellular Innovation Center Blog: Focused on tissue engineering and stem cell biology, this center is at the forefront of much of the research they share via this blog.
  6. Stem Cell Breaking Research: Need to know the absolute latest on stem cell research? This blog may be one of your best bets, with updates posted every day.
  7. Stem Cell Digest.net: On this blog, you’ll find information about stem cell research, progress, new applications and companies who are doing the work.
  8. Stem Cell Methods: Researchers, scientists and medical professionals can learn more about the protocols and methods being used in stem cell research and treatment through this blog.

Author’s not (6/1/2011). This excellent site was brought to my attention by Dr. Anthony G. Payne- www.stemcelltherapies.org: This site is run by Steenblock Research Institute (San Clemente, California) which is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization devoted to stem cell related education and research (SRI has a massive library facility and  stem cell R & D laboratory).

STEMEZ hNeural Progenitors and Cell Migration

I first featured Dr. Steve Stice in August 2008. I have since done follow up posts based on the excellent studies they have been conducting using our  STEMEZ (TM) Human Neural Progenitor & Neuron Discovery Kits.

I would like to highlight a poster based on research Steve and his Team conducted with Platypus Technologies.

Allan C. Powe, Jr., Kathryn L. Hodges, Jamie M. Chilton, Scott Gehler, Renee L. Herber, Keren I. Hulkower, Steven L. Stice. Identification of stimulators and inhibitors of cell migration in human embryonic stem cell derived neural progenitors using a novel, high throughput amenable assay platform.

Investigates the migratory behavior of an adherent monolayer neural progenitor cell line derived from human embryonic stem cells (hNP1 ™; ArunA Biomedical)using a novel 96‐well based cell migration assay platform (Oris™ Cell Migration Assay; Platypus Technologies) amenable for high throughput screening. The assay platform uses stoppers to create central exclusion zones within the wells; cells are plated outside the zone and migrate inward once the stopper is removed.

Data suggest this is a tool for understanding proper nervous system development, development of therapies for cell migration defects, and identifying novel environmental neurotoxicants.

Conclusions:
—The hNP1™ Oris™ Cell Migration Assay can quantitatively detect both stimulators and inhibitors of cell migration.
—Method development to date indicates that the assay has the potential for adaptation as a homogenous HTS‐suitable cell‐based assay.
—Preliminary results suggest that bFGF alone has a potent chemokinetic effect while LIF and GDNF act synergistically to drive migratory behavior during dopaminergic differentiation.

Dr. Steve Stice to Present the Power of StemEZ Neural Cells

STEMEZ hN2 Primary Human Neurons

STEMEZ hN2 Primary Human Neurons

I have profiled Steve Stice’s research here. The focus has been the excellent research results he and his team at ArunA Biomedical have generated with STEMEZ(TM) hN2 Human Neurons and hNP1 Human Neural Progenitors.

The story continues. He will be presenting the latest at the 9th Annual World Pharmaceutical Congress in Philadelphia, June 14. Topics include: using these neural cell lines to study neurotoxicity in cell-based assays and disease modeling.  Recent work conducted in outside laboratories demonstrates that these lines are more sensitive to environmental toxicants than traditional cellular models.

Sample high throughput assay applications:

  • Cell morphology and neurite outgrowth
  • Cell signaling and transcription factor expression
  • Receptor and ion channel function
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Apoptosis, genotoxicity and DNA damage

These capabilities has been confirmed by our customers. I look for the use of the STEMEZ cell lines to continue to grow as researchers discover their value in Drug Discovery and Basic Neuroscience capabilities.

Stem Cell Research Guidelines Sidebar

As a growing provider of Stem Cell Research Reagents, I am in search of information that cuts through the confusion. My goal is to publish postings that could be of value to my customers and researchers.

On September 5th, Updated Guidelines for Stem Cell Research was released by the National Academies.

One reason for the 2008 modifications is to provide guidance on the derivation and use of new human stem cells that were first developed last year.  These cells — called “induced pluripotent cells” — are made by reprogramming nonembryonic adult cells into a stem-cell-like state, in which they can be manipulated to form a wide array of specialized body cells.  Although induced pluripotent stem cells can be derived without using embryos, the ethical and policy concerns related to their potential uses are similar to those pertaining to human embryonic stem cells.  For example, issues arising from mixing human and animal cells in a single organism are relevant for stem cells from both embryonic and nonembryonic sources.  However, derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells does not require special stem cell expertise and is adequately covered by current Institutional Review Board regulations, the report says.

Copies of 2008 Amendments to the National Academies’ Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research are available from the National Academies Press; tel. 202-334-3313 or 1-800-624-6242 or on the Internet at http://www.nap.edu

Stem Cell News Update

Dr. Steve Stice is in the on deck circle. We will be featuring his work in developing neural stem cell based assays for use in drug discovery. These platforms have the potential to help more efficiently and accuratelyidentify targets for pain, neurodegeneration and other CNS and PNS related diseases.

As a back drop, we wanted to feature several updates. First is a brief summary of the current positions of the Presidential Candidates.

Sen. John McCain

.- John McCain has set his sights on Florida as the state’s primary draws closer. In a conversation with Catholics in Florida and CNA this afternoon, McCain maintained his support for embryonic stem cell research while emphasizing his hope that it will become an academic issue given the latest scientific advances.

When he was asked how he reconciled his otherwise solid pro-life voting record with his support for experimentation on “surplus” embryos, Sen. McCain called his decision to back the research “a very agonizing and tough decision”. He continued, saying, “All I can say to you is that I went back and forth, back and forth on it and I came in on one of the toughest decisions I’ve ever had, in favor of that research. And one reason being very frankly is those embryos will be either discarded or kept in permanent frozen status.” The senator, while standing firm on his decision added, “I understand how divisive this is among the pro-life community.”

Referring to the recent break through in stem cell research which allows scientists to use skin cells to create stem cells, McCain said that, “I believe that skin stem cell research has every potential very soon of making that discussion academic…. Sam Brownback and others are very encouraged at this latest advance….”’

Sen. Barack Obama
Advocates increased stem cell research. Campaign Web site states: “We owe it to the American public to explore the potential of stem cells to treat the millions of people suffering from debilitating and life-threatening diseases.” Supported legislation during his tenure in the Illinois Senate that allowed embryonic stem cell research in that state.Opposes human cloning.

Voted in support of these congressional stem-cell bills:

– The Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act, which amends the Public Health Service Act to provide for human embryonic stem cell research.

– The Alternative Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapies Enhancement Act, which promotes research into deriving stem cell lines by methods “that do not knowingly harm embryos.”

– The Fetal Farming Bill of 2006, which prohibits the “solicitation or acceptance of tissue from embryos gestated for research purposes.”

He was one of the co-sponsors of the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2007 (S. 5), which expands the number of human embryonic stem cells eligible for federally funded research.

Regardless…research using cells derived from government approved cell lines and aborted/miscarried fetuses marches into the face of uncertain funding and a raging moral debate. Both candidates are taking risks and demonstrating leadership…in the season of hope and new beginnings, I look foward to cogent policy and funding levels that enable the development of therapies that treat the millions of people suffering from debiliatating diseases.

An alternative, though in its infancy, could be induced pluripotency (iPS).

Here’s a recent interview with Dr. James Thompson who published the first two papers on making human iPS cells.

Nature Reports Stem Cells
Published online: 14 August 2008 | doi:10.1038/stemcells.2008.118

James Thomson: shifts from embryonic stem cells to induced pluripotency

Human Embryonic Stem Cells-The Great Debate

The use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Research is a lightening rod. It is catalyzing a great debate that transcends science and instead challenges us to take positions based on morality and ethics.

My considerations are humble. They do not extend to the potential of manipulating pluripotent cells to grow transplantable human tissues and organs in the lab. I am more interested in the ability for scientists to manipulate progenitors to grow pure cell populations in vitro for basic research.  These cultures are useful for helping Scientists understand the molecular biology of diseases. This is but a baby step in the direction of actually discovering therapies for insidious human diseases. I would like to have these cultures available as research tools for my customers, but what are the ethical considerations even, say, if the cells were derived from government approved cell lines.

Ted Peters

Ted Peters

In my journey of understanding, I happened upon a website that articulates  the roots of the debate and sheds light on the big questions that need to be answered by systematic theologians and public policy makers. These answers then could provide a moral and ethical framework for unleashing the promise of stem cells.

The Stem Cell Debate: Ethical Questions-About the author: Ted Peters is a professor of Systematic Theology at Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary and the Graduate Theological Union (GTU) in Berkeley, California. He is author of GOD-The World’s Future (Fortress 2000) and Science, Theology, and Ethics (Ashgate 2003). He is editor-in-chief of Dialog, A Journal of Theology. He also serves as co-editor of Theology and Science published by the Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences in Berkeley.

On Deck-Dr. Steve Stice

We read about the promise of stem cells in the news every day. They could prove to be ”magic bullets” for curing diseases like Alzheimer’s. Parkinson’s, MS and others. Stem Cell Research is also surrounded with controversy as currently cells are often harvested from human embryos and fetuses.I believe top researchers will prove to be the voice of reason in the human stem cell debate as they are the ones best positioned to know the risks, limitations and potential.  

For our August Profile, I am honored to be featuring Dr. Steve Stice. I have had the pleasure of working with Dr. Stice both in his role as Professor and Director of the Regenerative Bioscience Center and Research Alliance Eminent Scholar endowed Chair at the University of Georgia and as Founder and Chief Scientific Officer at Aruna Biomedical.

He has over 16 years of research and development experience in biotechnology and is a co-founder of five biotechnology companies.  He was named one of the 100 Most Influential Georgians by Georgia Trend magazine.  He produced the first cloned rabbit in 1987 and the first cloned transgenic calves in 1998 (George and Charlie).  In 1997 his group produced the first genetically modified embryonic stem cell derived pigs and cattle.  This research led to publications in Science and Nature journals, national news coverage (CBS, NBC, ABC and CNN) and the first US patents on cloning animals and cattle embryonic stem cells.  In 2001, Dr. Stice announced the first cloned animal (calf) from an animal that was dead for 48 hours.  In 2005, his stem cell group published the first work on deriving motor neurons from stem cells.  Motor neurons are damaged lost during the progression of several diseases such as ALS and spinal muscular atrophy.  Throughout his career he has published and lectured on cloning and stem cell technologies.  Prior to joining the University of Georgia, Dr. Stice was a co-founder and Chief Scientific Officer at Advanced Cell Technology, a company developing cloning and stem cell technology.

Here is What is  Currently Hot in the Stice Lab:
New neural stem cells technology developed in my lab was transferred to a commercial entity, Aruna biomedical. This is the first commercialized product derived from human embryonic stem cell using federally approved stem cell lines.

  • We have produced neurons that have neural functions
  • We are working with the Navy to use our neural cells as biosensors for environmental toxins 
  • We have vascular stem cells that have characteristics that may make them suitable for  transplantation
  • We collaborate with a new company call Aruna BioMedical  that will stem cells for neural research and drug discovery
  • Developed a method to test new compounds for Alzheimer’s disease using our neural stem cell
  • We are one of five NIH stem cell training centers and have taught Scientists from Georgia to Bombay India new stem cell techniques
  • In Georgia, we produced over 50 cloned calves and 100 cloned pigs.
  • We were also the first to produce a clone from an animal that had been dead for 48 hours. This opens new opportunities in agriculture and preserving endangered species.